Solving Two Major Problems Plaguing Africa; Commercial Organic Fertilizers From Urban Organic Wastes

Africa, the infamous house for subsistence and middle size farming, is experiencing a challenge that modern solutions seem to ignore. The lack of affordable fertilizer for small and middle size farmers denies them economic gains from their farms especially after spending on chemical fertilizers. The problem is compounded by lack of commitment from governments which do not compel fertilizer manufacturers to come up with affordable solutions for farmers. Some governments offer fertilizer subsidies to small scale farmers but this assistance is not reliable, and only less than 20% of needy farmers access such aid yearly. The influence that large farms have over crop markets has paved the way for expensive chemical fertilizers to dominate the markets and suppressed the efforts of small and middle size farmers who opt to cultivate without applying fertilizers on their farms. At the same time, the problem of garbage neutralization in urban cities is growing more complex because land is continuously acquired to expand landfills. Farmers in South Africa are classified into subsistence and commercial farmers; the latter being white farmers mostly. According to a 2016 Land Bank report, an ...

All 2,493 items targeted by China’s tariffs in US trade war — Quartz

China’s latest tariff retaliation, announced today, will hit some $60 billion in US exports, including hundreds of agricultural, mining, and manufactured products, threatening jobs and profits at companies around the United States.  Before the trade war starts in earnest, China bought about 17% of US agricultural exports and was a major market for other goods, from Maine lobster to Boeing aircraft. It has been the largest market for Apple iPhones since 2016. Since the escalation of tariffs, though, China has stopped buying soybeans and lobsters, and Apple warned it would miss its expected Christmas holiday sales figures because of trade tensions. In addition to the 25% tariffs below, Beijing also added 20% tariffs on 1,078 US products, 10% tariffs on 974 US products, and 5% tariffs on 595 US products (all links in Chinese). The list was translated from China’s ministry of finance press release using Google translate, and may be inexact in spots. Quartz also rearranged some items on the list to group them into categories, and they may not be in the order of their “harmonized tariff schedule” codes.  Compost Turner, Fertilizer Crusher, Fertilizer Mixer, Fertilizer Dryer – E...